Modern Journalism: Subjects and Issues
«Content Specifics of Russian Fake News on the Internet and on Television»
Fake news has widely spread over recent years, especially during the Brexit process, Ukrainian conflict and US presidential election campaign. Collins English Dictionary chose the word “fake” as the word of the year 2017. This study looks at the content specifics of fake news on the Internet and on Russian television. The sample consists of 22pieces of fake news that spread in social networks and online media (the audience for each piece amounted to more than 1 million people). The authors draw a conclusion about fake news mimicry to real news (structural similarity). The difference appears only at the level of content. The major means of spreading fake news are not only social networks and dubious websites but also the federal media.
Keywords: fake, fake news, online news, the Internet, online communication, television
Kristina L. Zuykina, Daria V. Sokolova
«Coverage of Fec in Newspapers and News Agencies: Similarities and Difficulties»
Every theme covered in mass media calls for the use of its own journalistic approaches and methods. This paper analyzes the coverage of the Russian fuel and energy complex by the Interfax, RIA Novosti and TASS news agencies as well as by the Vedomosti, Kommersant and RBC business newspapers. The aim of the study is to reveal the characteristics of FEC-related texts in the news agencies and newspapers in terms of information sources, thematic dominants and editorial assessment of the materials. The author concludes that in covering the themes of the Russian fuel and energy complex newspapers pay special attention to the oil and gas sector and journalists specializing in this field write the most profound texts. In news agencies, however, the FEC-related themes are covered in a superficial manner; the texts draw only on factual data, they lack analysis though have a small proportion of exclusive information.
Keywords: article, piece of news, FEC, editorial copy, sources, thematic dominant
Karina Kh. Khamizova
«Model of Three Levels of the Digital Divide: Current Advantages and Limitations (Exemplified by the Republic of Tatarstan)»
This paper presents the theory of three levels of the digital divide, which has been widely used abroad since the 2000s for the study of digital inequalities but has not been thoroughly examined by Russian scholars so far. In a case study of the Republic of Tatarstan, the authors use the three-level approach to explore inequalities in access to the Internet and ICTs (the first level of the digital divide), digital skills and digital literacy of users (the second level), and the social benefits users can get by competently using digital technologies in their professional and private life (the third level). The research showed that the open access data the authors examined are not enough for a full understanding of the three-level digital divide in the republic, which in its turn emphasizes the need for an empirical research based on interpreting the primary data collected in the region.
Keywords: digital divide, three levels of the digital divide, Tatarstan, Russia
Anna A. Gladkova, Vasil Z. Garifullin, Massimo Ragnedda
History of Journalism
«The Policy of Leading Organizations on Publishing Sports Periodical Press in 1920-ies »
This paper considers the early formation of the Soviet sports press system. The subject of the research is the history of emergence, transformation and closure of the first central specialized publications at the beginning of the 1920s in response to such an influential factor as change in leading organizations and conflicts among their leaders. Based on archive materials and the articles of the publications themselves, the author analyzes, in particular, the situation of the acquisition of the Krasnyi Sport journal by the publishing house of the Supreme Council of Physical Culture. The novelty of the paper is in introducing into scientific use some new data, which make it possible to better understand the development characteristics of sports publications during the NEP period.
Keywords: sport, physical culture, sports press, Universal Military Training, Supreme Council of Physical Culture, Krasnyi Sport
Konstantin A. Alexeev
«I. A. Bunin in Newspaper "Obshcheye Delo" (1920-1922)»
This article is devoted to the subject of I. A. Bunin’s contribution to one of the most noticeable periodicals of the Russian Abroad — in V.L. Burtsev’s newspaper Obshcheye Delo (Paris, 1918—1922). The author of the article distinguishes four stages in the history of the newspaper: 1909—1910, 1917, 1918—1922 and 1928— 1940. However, the author considers that it was not the same publication issued irregularly but four different newspapers, which had the same title and common features defining the political face of each of them: oppositionism and extra-party membership. I. A. Bunin was an employee of Obshcheye Delo in 1920—1922. It was the third version of V. L. Burtsev’s newspaper, which was published in the Russian and French languages (the French edition was called “La Cause commune”). The newspaper was financed by generals A. I. Denikin and P. N. Wrangel. As a result of studying the issues of Obshcheye Delo for 1920—1922, the author of the article found that while working for the newspaper Bunin published 17 articles, 3 stories and 20 poems in Russian and at least 2 articles in French. Financial difficulties, which eventually led to the closure of the publication, became one of the reasons why I. A. Bunin terminated his cooperation with V. L. Burtsev’s newspaper. The article uses little-known documentary materials, including those from the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the Manuscript Department of the Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Archive in Leeds. The list of works which Bunin published in Obshcheye Delo/La Cause commune is given in the Appendix.
Keywords: I.A. Bunin, V.L. Burtsev, Obshcheye Delo / La Cause commune, the Russian Abroad, the émigré press
Anton V. Bakuntsev
«"Kalishskie Begletsy": Futurist Poets in the Nov Newspaper»
The Nov newspaper (1914 – 1915) has a short but vivid history, which is not fully understood. General information about this publication can be found in the memoirs of A. Borovoi, an anarchist and lawyer deeply immersed in the political and journalistic life of Moscow of the 1910s. The Nov newspaper is also mentioned in the fundamental work “Russian Avant-Garde” by A. Krusanov. Using archival materials, the author of this article is trying to figure out what role futurist poets played in the history of the newspaper. Nov’s publisher A. A. Suvorin decided to cooperate with V. Mayakovsky and his associates after the start of the First World War. During this period, the enmity among literary groups lessened due to a patriotic upsurge. Mayakovsky prepared only one poetic page named “The Mournful Hurrah”, which caused controversy among the poets, the publisher, journalists and readers. Suvorin was not ready for a serious discussion about literature. Mayakovsky’s remarks sounded more persuasive, since they contained not only criticism, but also a positive aesthetic program. In the understanding of art the poet came close to V. Shklovsky and other formalists. The reputation of the newspaper suffered because of Suvorin’s inconsistency. Obviously, the futurists remained aliens to the editorial staff and readers. Their formalistic sermon looked rather strange against the background of other materials published in the newspaper.
Keywords: A. A. Suvorin, A. Borovoi, Nov, futurism, V. Mayakovsky, formalism, V. Shklovsky
Ruslan A. Poddubtsev
«Journalists and Literary Figures as Participants and Mediators in the Intercultural Dialogue between Emigrant Russia and France in the 1920-ies»
The article considers the cooperation by French elite and white émigrés, i. e., literary figures, in the field of journalism and publicism are scrutinized. The relevance of this research relies on the analysis of the materials that have never been examined before – the articles of Russian émigrés published in the French press as well as in the francophoneémigré press. The aim of the research is to reveal to what extent the Russian-French collaboration was compelling and whether it has resulted in the consolidation of theémigrés’ image in the eyes of the French as well as in the fanning anti-Soviet flames in France. As a result of the research conducted we found that the French were enthusiastic about Russian-French contacts, and the émigrés strived for the cooperation with French society. Russian émigrés in France were far from being ignored. Nevertheless, flamboyant Russian-French cooperation within public organisations and the press could not prevent the alterations of the interior political landscape in France that brought diplomatic isolation of the USSR by France to a halt. Thus, that led to the diminished interest in theémigrés, who proved themselves as not being able to integrate into French society.
Keywords: Russian emigration, white émigrés, Russian émigré literature, Russian émigré press, French press
Julia T. Vered
«History of Russian-Thai Relations in the Thai Version of Sovetsky Soyuz Magazine »
This research aims to study the history of Russian-Thai relations, which was featured in the Thai version of the Sovetskiy Soyuz magazine in 1978–1990 after a period of mass repressions against communists and left-wing movements in Thailand. The conducted content analysis of the magazine articles and other relevant documents makes it possible to draw the following conclusions: 1) The materials regarding the history of interaction between Russia and Thailand reflected the process of humanization of the image of the Soviet Union; 2) Peaceful cooperation played an important role in relations between the two countries.
Keywords: Sovetskiy Soyuz magazine, Cold War, Russian-Thai relations, historiography
«Current State of the Digital Audience in France (a Review of Industry Reports)»
Over the past fifteen years, the digitalization of French society has been rapid and steady. Against the background of the growing number of digital devices in the world, France is one of the leaders in the rate of Internet penetration. Digitalization affects all spheres of French society, especially the sphere of mobile and fixed communication. The substantial growth in the use of mobile phones and smartphones leads to an increase in the consumption of mobile communication and the Internet. For this reason, the phenomenon of “three devices” appears. Nowadays French people do not limit themselves to the possession of one gadget with Internet access: most of them use a computer, a smartphone and a tablet. This research paper characterizes the current state of the digital audience in France and shows the main tendencies that affect the pace of digitalization. The basic data are borrowed from authoritative reports provided by the French institutes studying the Internet sphere. The conclusion of the study sets out the tendencies that are typical of French users nowadays: the growth of mobile communication, the reduction in the share of fixed communication, the growth of digital literacy, the involvement of the French in social networks, the spread of online shopping and the e-government system.
Keywords: the Internet, audience, gadgets, mobile communication, fixed communication, digitalization
Nikolai A. Chikishev