Sociology of Journalism
«“It Finds Me Anyway”: Media Consumption of News Avoiders»
The article discusses how news avoiders talk about the news-finds-me effect. The empirical materials consist of 44 interviews. The research shows that news avoiders do not feel uninformed. The interviewees express confidence that information about the most important events on the agenda will find them by itself. The channels of receiving information for news avoiders are social contacts (offline or online), casual consumption of traditional media (for example, the radio in a taxi), as well as social networks and computer algorithms. The effect of news-finds-me can also be evaluated in different ways. Some subjects of the interviews note that this effect allows them to stay on top of major events without effort, thus saving time, cognitive and emotional resources. The situation, when information finds its audience, legitimizes news avoidance and relieves people of the feeling of guilt about their unwillingness to follow the agenda. However, other subjects emphasize that the news-find-me effect does not give them the opportunity to protect themselves from negative information, forcing them to consume news they would like to avoid.
Keywords: news avoidance, media consumption, high-choice media environment, news-finds-me, casual news consumption
Anastasia D. Kazun
«Aggression in Media Users’ Communication: an Analysis of Behavioral Features and Mutual Influence»
Examining the possibilities of mutual influence of users in new media, the researchers found a high level of aggression and hate speech when discussing an urgent social problem – measures to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. This fact determined both the central topic of the proposed article and the pivotal aspect of the follow-up research. The first chapter of the article is devoted to the characteristics of the prerequisites of the undertaken research and its main features. The subsequent chapters include methodological hallmarks of the study, theoretical substantiation of the concepts of "aggression" and "hate speech" and identification of systemic connections of these concepts with other characteristics of messages. As a consequence, a mathematical model of aggression growth was created and its manageability was analyzed using basic social media strategies. The results can be useful for developing media content in a modern digital environment.
Keywords: aggression, hate speech, new media, social networks, internet users, comments, media consumers
Varvara V. Kazhberova, Alexander G. Chkhartishvili, Dmitry A. Gubanov, Ivan V. Kozitsyn, Evgeny V. Belyavsky, Denis N. Fedyanin, Sergey N. Cherkasov, Dmitry O. Meshkov
Modern Journalism: Subjects and Issues
«The Subject of Import and Support for a Domestic Manufacturer in Economic Publications of Russian Media»
The article examines the change in attitude in the information discourse of Russian media towards the subject of buying imported goods and supporting domestic producers over the period from 1991 to 2022. Using the tools of qualitative and quantitative content analysis and an array of 8 311 publications, the author considers four bigrams and the specifics of their use in journalistic texts. The article fixes the correlation between economic crises and the promotion of ideas supporting domestic producers in periodicals, traced throughout the entire post-Soviet period of the existence of Russian media writing on economic subjects, as well as a noticeable change in the economic argumentation in this area in the second half of the 2010s. The author identifies four information periods and defines the information pattern characteristic of each of them. Every pattern is described through the typical features of journalistic publications related to it. The article concludes that there are four periods in post-Soviet media, within which there are publications on the subjects under consideration. When one moves from the first period to the second and then further, it becomes obvious that the level of economic argumentation in journalistic publications is decreasing.
Keywords: journalism, import, information discourse, information pattern, domestic producer, economic thinking
Dmitry E. Konoplev
History of Journalism
«History of the Muzyka Weekly in 1910–1916: Documents and Personalities»
Program and finance play a considerable role in the publishing process. For specialized publications, however, interpersonal communication sometimes becomes a priority in their editorial policy. Based on the work with the funds of the Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg), the Manuscript Department of the National Library of Russia (St. Petersburg), the Russian State Archive of Literature and Art (Moscow), and the funds of the Russian National Museum of Music (Moscow), this article reconstructs the history of the Moscow Muzyka weekly (1910–1916). For the first time, a detailed biography of its editor and publisher V. V. Derzhanovsky up to 1916 is presented, as well as his previously unpublished letters to N. F. Findeisen and B. V. Asafyev.
Keywords: Muzyka weekly, 2nd Branch of the Office of the Main Press Directorate, ego-documents, V. V. Derzhanovsky, N. F. Findeisen, Igor Glebov (B. V. Asafyev), N. Ya. Myaskovsky
Yuliya M. Belous
«Conditions for Cooperation of Photo Correspondents with Soyuzfoto (a Case Study of the Photocor Newspaper, 1931–1933)»
The article presents the results of an investigation into the publications of the Photocor newspaper (September 1931 – February 1933) aimed at developing the photo correspondent network of the Soyuzfoto photo agency, responsibility for which was assigned to the Mass Department in the central Moscow office and regional offices. Photocor's publications contain a mixture of documentary information and narratives, primary and secondary data, they are focused on an external professional audience and are ideologically colored, which is expressed primarily in the choice of lexical units. Considering this number of features, in order to systematize the information given in Photocor about the conditions for cooperation between photo correspondents and Soyuzfoto, the author of this article identified problem-thematic groups that characterize various aspects of this process (organizational, technical-aesthetic, ideological, philological, economic, technological) and then consistently reconstructs the historical evidence on each group of problems. Soyuzfoto's cooperation with photo correspondents can be characterized as direct, linear and represented in the form of the following communication scheme: establishing a primary connection – receiving a press card and a thematic plan – shooting and sending negatives with text messages – receiving a fee and technical advice on rejected negatives and the return of rejected negatives. The most active authors were also supported by parcels with photographic materials. Soyuzfoto registered an increase in the number of photo correspondents in the period from 32 in November 1931 to 625 in January 1933, but found this number insufficient, which indicates both the effectiveness of Photocor’ publications and at the same time the limited potential of the newspaper's resource.
Keywords: photocor, photo correspondent, Soyuzfoto, Photoсor newspaper, press photography, photojournalism, USSR, 1930s
Maria A. Romakina
«The Format of the Soviet Children's Magazine Kostyor in the Context of Actualization of Axiological Attitudes»
The author concerns the format characteristics of a Soviet children's magazine, conditioned by the value content of the materials presented in the magazine. The relevance of the study is accounted for by the insufficiency of research into the format of children's periodicals in the USSR, as well as the correlation between the format, value attitudes, and social reality. The purpose of the study was to establish and analyze these correlations. The research was carried out within the discourse analysis framework. As empirical material, 10 issues of the Kostyor magazine of the late Soviet period were used. In the course of the study, the author analyzed both the covers and the content of the issues and classified the content of the publications according to their genres. Next, the author distinguished values conveyed by the content and, finally, established correlations between the values of the content and the position of the publication within the issue. As a result, it was found that the materials published on the front pages and in the first half of the issue carry a significant axiological load. They actualize such socially important values as patriotism, historical memory, fellowship, mutual assistance, and the ideals of the Revolution. This determines the awareness-raising function of the magazine. The direction of education itself is conditioned by the ideological orientation of state policy. Materials that perform an entertainment function are usually placed at the end of the issue. This corresponds to the functionality of the magazine, which focuses on ideological education rather than entertainment.
Keywords: children’s periodicals, Soviet, Kostyor, values
Natalia Yu. Vidineeva
«Emigrants' Opposition Thought in the Journal-Newspaper Tribuna (1983–1984)»
The article analyzes the ideological concept and publishing characteristics of the Russian-language journal-newspaper Tribuna, published in France and the USA in 1983–1984. For the first time, a review is made of the points of view of journalists from the Russian diaspora on the history of the USSR as a global process presented on its pages. The variety of views of third wave emigrants on the domestic and international policies of the country is considered, the proposed ways of Soviet society’s democratization are explored. Many world-famous authors who emigrated from the Soviet Union, as well as lesser-known journalists and public figures, published their works in the journal-newspaper. On its pages, they expressed bold thoughts about the need for radical changes in the social and economic, legal spheres of state life. It is concluded that Tribuna could have allowed more freedom of expression, which markedly distinguished it from other periodicals of the third wave. The concept of the journal-newspaper Tribuna was opposition to Soviet ideology. Having existed for a short period, Tribuna was able to influence emigrants’ ideological, political, social and cultural orientation in the 1980s.
Keywords: Russian diaspora, emigrant periodicals, third wave, anti-Soviet propaganda, policy and ideology of emigration
Nailya M. Baibatyrova