№ 2 ' 2023


  • Modern Journalism: Subjects and Issues

    «Multimedia Genres in Modern Russian Media»

    Multimedia publications make up about a quarter of the content of modern Russian online titles. These are the results of a study into the publications of the 20 most popular Russian media websites. The study was conducted in October-November 2022. 50 publications containing text were selected on the main page of each media outlet's website. Thus, the sample amounted to 1 000 publications. 222 of them also contained multimedia elements. Next, the genre of the text and he form and role of multimedia in the text were identified. The dominant genre of the text was news, which accounted for almost three quarters (73.4%) of publications. The established multimedia genres are as follows: news with a video background, news with a reportage of an event, news with a video quote, news with a video on the same topic, a review with a video review, a review with a video quote, an analytical article with a reportage, video quotes or an analytical video, and lastly an author's column with a video column, where the author voices the text. The differences in the level of multimediation among the media outlets under study are very large: the top three have a share of multimedia publications of 48– 72%, whereas the four outsiders – 4% each. Some media outlets tend to make almost all materials multimediated, while others supplement the text with multimedia elements only on special occasions. Among the forms of multimedia, videos dominate, and, as a rule, they are not shot by journalists of the publication, but received from other sources: press services, social networks and other media outlets. Audios are extremely rare, and other forms of multimedia (interactive infographics, animation, timeline, etc.) are actually not used. With regard to news publications, the text is accompanied by a video that is not related to the topic of the news, for example, "Video of the Day", "The Main News of the Day" or video excerpts such as "What is NATO" or "The Richest People on Earth". This is a consequence of the dictatorship of format and the lack of suitable videos on the topic. In other genres, this is much less common.
    Keywords: multimedia genres, multimedia formats, multimedia elements, multimedia news
    DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2023.322
    Alexander V. Kolesnichenko 3
  • Television and Radio

    «A Live Broadcast: a Quasi-Genre Form in Radio Journalists’ Spontaneous Typology of Genres»

    Despite the huge competition not only from other media, but the whole digital media landscape radio remains a popular mass medium in Russia. The question of the system of auditory and audiovisual genres and formats has been hotly debated for many years not only among researchers, but also among practitioners. A genre is a “memory of culture”, a historically determined type of reflection of reality, which has a number of relatively stable features, while a format is a set of permanent features, well-developed methods for collecting and processing information and interpreting it. The problem of typology of a live broadcast can have several solutions. Firstly, this type of message can be considered as a genre that has not yet been described and included in the scientific system of genres. Their emergence at a certain historical stage should be viewed as development of the genre system, its expansion and complication. Secondly, it can be assumed that a live broadcast is just another name for some existing genre. In this case, we are dealing not with the process of genre formation, but with naming. In this article, the authors try to genre-identify the live broadcasts on modern Russian radio stations. The results of the analysis of six materials that were similar in their typological features to live broadcasts and were released on three news/talk radio stations, Kommersant FM, Vesti FM and Radio Rossii, are presented. With the help of 10 employees of other state and commercial radio stations from different cities of Russia, the authors found out how the industry workers themselves identify live broadcasts. The results obtained in the course of the study confirm the initial hypothesis that this is not a genre as it is but a stable association of different genres, an extensive genre conglomerate.
    Keywords: broadcasting, information broadcasting, genres, forms, reportage, live broadcast
    DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2023.2346
    Gennady V. Syrkov, Ludmila A. Kruglova 23
  • «Adaptation of Russian ‘Big Three’ Television Channels’ News Broadcasting to the Conditions of the Media Market in the Republic of Moldova»

    The results of a study of the mechanisms for adapting the news programs of Russian ‘Big Three’ TV channels to the conditions of the media market and legal framework of the Republic of Moldova are presented in the article. Nowadays TV channels partly rebroadcast from Russia – Perviy Kanal, Rossiya 1 and NTV – exist in the Moldavian media system. Each of them has analogues in Moldova: Primul n Moldova, RTR Moldova and NTV Moldova. This article gives a general idea of the transformation of Russian TV channels in the post-Soviet space within the framework of a policy aimed at infringing on Russian-language content in the Republic of Moldova. The conclusions about the restriction of the volume of Russian-language broadcasting in Moldova, about the politicization of the adapted broadcasts of the TV channels of Russian ‘Big Three’ in the country, as well as about the underfunding of their production process, which affects the quality of the produced content, can be used to fully understand the operation of the three largest Russian media companies – Channel One, VGTRK and NTV Television Company.
    Keywords: television, Republic of Moldova, locality, Russian language, audience
    DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2023.4772
    Olga V. Tikhonova, Anastasia A. Slobodyanyuk 47
  • New Media

    «Social Networks as a Source of Newsworthy Events for Russian Journalism (a Case Study of Using Youtube and Instagram (Banned on the Territory of the Russian Federation))»

    The article presents the results of analyzing the way Russian journalists use the YouTube and Instagram social networks as a source of newsworthy events for four popular media: two newspapers (Komsomolskaya Pravda, Rossiyskaya Gazeta) and two news agencies (RIA Novosti, RBC) for the period from June 1, 2021 to June 1, 2022. The nature and thematic focus of the newsworthy events, the frequency of resorting to them before and after access limitation to Instagram in Russia on March 14, 2022 were identified. The author of the article used content analysis and comparative analysis, which showed that when working with YouTube and Instagram, journalists of the leading Russian media choose to find the most popular publications on these social networks for their subsequent brief presentation to the print media audience. Notably, more than 90% of the journalistic publications based on YouTube and more than 80% of the publications based on Instagram were materials dealing with new videos, photos and news from the lives of show business celebrities and sports stars.
    Keywords: social networks, newsworthy events, Russian journalism, YouTube, Instagram, information resource, modern Russian media
    DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2023.7390
    Svetlana N. Gikis 73
  • History of Journalism

    «Origin and Development of the State All-Union Publishing House “Fizkultura i Sport” in the 1930s»

    The article discusses one of the key stages in the formation of the all-Union state publishing house Physical Culture and Sport (or Physical Culture and Tourism, as it was called for most of the 1930s), which played a crucial role in creating the original system of Soviet physical education. The reasons and circumstances of the publishing house under study joining the Association of State Book and Magazine Publishing Houses of RSFSR (OGIZ) in 1931, as well as leaving it in 1938, are investigated. All transformations were carried out with the aim of systematic development and improvement of the publishing house, which had to meet the growing needs of actively developing Soviet physical culture. Based on a comparative analysis of data from archival documents contained in the State Archives of the Russian Federation and publications of central periodicals on physical culture and sports, the author of the article proposes that, despite the steady demand for printed materials on physical culture and sports, the structural transformations that the publishing house experienced were not able to solve its chronic problems throughout the decade. Among these constant problems were, first of all, dependence on the supply of paper, a lack of their own printing house and a shortage of qualified editorial personnel. Despite the reforms undertaken by the governing agencies, activities under centralized planning did not bring the required results: the volume and circulation of the sports press remained at the level of 1930 and lagged noticeably behind the growth of sports and sports movement in the USSR.
    Keywords: physical culture, sports, sports periodicals, publishing, Physical Culture and Sport publishing house
    DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2023.91124
    Konstantin A. Alexeev 91
  • «Overseas Activities of Bureaus and Departments of ROSTA and TASS in the 1920S: the Financial and Economic Aspect»

    The article analyses the financial and economic aspects of overseas activities of the Soviet news agencies ROSTA and TASS operating under the conditions of New Economic Policy (NEP). Based on archive documents, the author maintains that the regular development of the overseas segment of the agencies’ performance was actually subsidized by the state. Inside the country, the work of the agencies was based on self-supporting principles while abroad these were inapplicable. Under the conflict with bourgeoise countries, this work was ideological in nature and essential to promote the political interests of the USSR. This is why, in spite of critical shortage of foreign currency in the country, the authorities allocated huge sums to support and develop these activities.
    Keywords: telegraph agency, ROSTA, TASS, USSR, overseas departments, bureaus, 1920s
    DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2023.125144
    Maksim I. Babyuk 125
  • «I. A. Bunin’s Early Critical and Journalistic Work (1888–1900)»

    The article is devoted to the early period of I.A. Bunin’s critical and journalistic creative work covering the years 1888–1900. The author substantiates the chronological framework of the study, examines the key genres to which Bunin’s early critical and journalistic works identified so far belong, lists the periodicals in which they were published, highlights their themes and role in the formation of professional qualities, personal and ideological characteristics of Bunin as a writer and employee of Russian publications at the end of the 19th – in the first half of the 20th century, specifies the importance of journalism for Bunin’s creative evolution, the thematic and ideological connection between his early and mature critical and journalistic work. The article also provides a number of statistical data. The appendix contains a list of all his critical and journalistic works identified to date, among which 63 undoubtedly and two more presumably belong to Bunin.
    Keywords: I.A. Bunin, early creative work, non-fiction creative work, Russian periodical press of the late 19th century, critical works, journalism
    DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2023.145167
    Anton V. Bakuntsev 145