«Typology of Multimedia Longreads»
Multimedia longreads presented in Russian online media can be reduced to several types of combinations of text and multimedia: analytics with video interviews, a reconstructor with archival footage and timeline, an investigation with reportage video inserts, a reportage with shooting on the spot, a review with reportage shooting and animation, and a portrait with video inserts from social networks. These are the results of a study into over one hundred of the most popular and cited Russian media websites. At the same time, it turned out that the vast majority of even the largest Russian media outlets do not publish multimedia longreads at all, and the bulk of large materials on media websites are mono-media, namely a long text with pictures or a documentary film. Multimedia longreads were identified on only 15 out of 114 websites. Moreover, there were only 1 to 3 multimedia longreads on 10 of these websites. In total, 42 multimedia longreads were identified. The most popular types of multimedia longreads are an analytical article, an investigation and a reconstructor. They account for more than three quarters of all publications. The most popular multimedia elements are reportage, video interviews and archival footage. They make up almost 90% of the total number of multimedia elements. And although it can be argued that a multimedia longread is an established format having an almost ten year history, its low representation in the online media casts doubt on the relevance and viability of this format.
Keywords: multimedia longread, journalistic genres, journalistic formats, universal journalism
Alexander V. Kolesnichenko
«User-Generated Content in Russian Online Media Texts about Traumatic Events»
In this article, the role of citizen journalism (UGC) in the coverage of traumatic events by Russian online media is examined. Content analysis of 855 texts about the most stressful events of 2018–2020 on three online media platforms (Lenta.ru, IZ.ru, KP.ru) was carried out. The obtained data were subjected to probabilistic statistical processing using the IBM Statistics SPSS software package. Calculations showed that UGC materials posted in the media are generally less traumatic and less focused on the activities of official agencies (more open to other sources) than journalistic texts. It also turned out that as a result of integration with users’ materials, the journalistic text changes its qualities, becomes less official and more personal, and represents a wider coverage of opinions and information sources. These qualities of the journalistic text significantly correlate with audience activity on the websites of the platforms under consideration in the form of reposts, comments and views. The authors of the article conclude that citizen journalism influences the development of modern mass media.
Keywords: UGC, online media, traumatic events, communicative transparency, information and psychological security, citizen journalism, media psychology
Maria N. Koroleva, Elena E. Pronina
Theory of Journalism and Media
«Agenda Setting and the Framing Effect: on the Need for Conceptual Unity in Media Studies of Digital Youth»
This article just aims to pose a problem. Based on a systematic review of academic sources devoted to agenda theory and framing in Russian media studies and in the context of foreign works, the problem areas of existing knowledge about the subject as applied to the media practices of “digital youth” in Russia are formulated. The empirical result of the article may be said to include the formulation of working definitions of the media/information agenda and framing, as well as the presentation of a matrix of media text analysis in social media for agenda setting and the identification of framing. In this kind of analysis, the authors suggest paying attention to the tone of the title and the publication as a whole, the presence of crucial values and anti-values, heroes and anti-heroes, as well as the degree of reader engagement, the level of opinion polarization in comments and the like. The latter parameters help provide an initial assessment of how the frame works, its basic structure, and an idea of the audience’s typical perception of the media message in the context of the proposed agenda.
Keywords: agenda, framing, “digital youth”
Denis V. Dunas, Elena A. Salikhova, Anna V. Tolokonnikova, Dariana A. Babyna
Television and Radio
«Transformation of Russian Sitcoms in 2000–2014»
The results of a study of Russian situational comedies are published in this article. The author analyzes the series of 2000–2014 that were shown on terrestrial television and investigates closely the aspects of the sitcom format and its transformation over time. The study shows the evolutionary trends of Russian situational comedies. Production becomes more complicated, its cost increases: more locations are used in the series, outdoor shooting takes place more often. The off-screen laughter gradually ceases to be used and the speed of changing camera views on the screen increases. The main sitcom characters also change: they become richer, still remaining middle class; and they appear not officially married more and more often. The stories embrace family relations more and more seldom. The humor is only partially transformed: the topics remain practically unchanged, but the format of the jokes becomes predominantly visual rather than verbal. At the same time, a number of format generating features remain stable, for example the number of storylines keeps corresponding to the classic approach in a sitcom.
Keywords: sitcoms, situational comedies, format, television, series, Russia
Olga V. Veselova
History of Journalism
«Esti Hirlap, the Socialist Tabloid in the Hungarian People’s Republic (1956–1996)»
The article is devoted to a unique phenomenon in the Hungarian press system of the socialist era, the Esti Hírlap newspaper, which was commonly referred to and was in fact a socialist tabloid. It was founded at the beginning of János Kádár’s political epoch and was actually the successor to the pre-war bourgeois tabloid Az Est. The analysis of this evening paper is important because it illustrated the nature of the so-called “soft socialism” in Hungary after the Hungarian autumn of 1956 and symbolized Kádár’s slogan: “He who is not against us is with us”. This was reflected in a certain liberalization in society and the absence of harsh censorship in the press. Therefore, this study goes to a certain extent beyond the media moving into the area of political science as well. The analysis of Esti Hirlap is based on the research carried out by the author in Hungary and a systematic study of the 20th century press of this country, as well as on a number of Russian and American sources.
Keywords: Hungary, Hungarian press, evening press, tabloid, Esti Hírlap, socialist tabloid, Kádár era
Tatiana Yu. Pynina
«On Narrative Experimentation in A. Dumas’ Works (Based on the “Bric-à-Brac” Collection)»
The paper discusses narrative experimentation characteristic of A. Dumas’ literary works in a case study of the writer’s journalistic texts. The “Bric-à-Brac” collection (1861) is analyzed from the point of view of intertwining of various genre codes and narrative structures, both within an individual text and within the collection as a whole. The methodology of the study is also based on a comparative analysis of the techniques of Dumas’ journalistic texts and his literary works. The novelty of the study lies in the introduction into the scientific discourse of Dumas’ journalistic texts, which have not previously been translated into Russian and have not become the subject of literary critics’ special attention. The close connection between Dumas’ literary works and journalistic texts, the introduction of literary genres into the journalistic context, as well as their combination with purely journalistic genres within a single text, allows one to see the tendency of Dumas’ writing model towards a combination of genres and narrative structures and to consider the “Bric-à-Brac” collection as a metaphor for the writer’s versatile work, at the intersection of journalism and literature.
Keywords: A. Dumas, causerie, narrative experimentation, press in France, 19th century
Polina A. Makarova
«The Image of Russia in Argentinian Periodicals (a Case Study of Página/12, Clarín, La Nación, Buenos Aires Times and El País Newspapers)»
In the context of the current geopolitical environment characterized by the growing tensions between various international parties, one of Russia’s primary goals is to maintain a positive image in the global information space. Being a public diplomacy tool, media are able to convey certain ideas and images to a wide audience to form a comprehensive image of a given country. The goal of the author of the paper was to describe the main features used in the presentation of the image of Russia in Argentinian mass media. The methodology included the study of the journalist’s argumentation, vocabulary, as well as the ways used to verbalize images, stylistic devices and the role of visual components (photos, illustrations) presented in the publications. The author analyzed a vast array of evidence (in total – more than 500 publications) and identified the main techniques that contribute to the formation of the media image of the country on the verbal and visual levels. Regarding the content of media messages, it may be concluded that the concepts postulated in Western media have a high degree of influence on Argentinian journalists’ position regarding the coverage of political and economic issues. However, considering the publications that cover the joint fight against the pandemic or those related to cultural issues, one can see a more positive attitude of their authors towards Russia in general and collaborative projects in particular.
Keywords: media image, Russia, Argentinian mass media
Elizaveta S. Golousova
«The Phenomenon of Refrito in Hispanic Journalism»
This article examines the phenomenon of refrito typical of literary and journalistic texts in Spain and Latin America. It studies the positive and negative influences of refrito on the process of creating a journalistic message. Recently, a new type of journalism has appeared in the modern media space: churnalism in English-speaking media, while in Spanish it is referred to as “rehash journalism” (“el periodismo de refrito”). This phenomenon leans on the concept of plagiarism and low quality texts. In most cases, plagiarism in the context of Spanish media is understood as refrito that contributes to the popularization of this kind of poor journalism. In spite of this fact, the authors show that within the framework of literary journalism, the concept of refrito acquires new connotations and proves the evolution of the writer-journalist’s creative potential. The use of this kind of texts in the media space makes it possible to create high-quality content and serves as a way to attract audiences.
Keywords: refrito, plagiarism, churnalism, literary journalism, Spanish and Latin American media
Maria V. Simonova, Veronica M. Sokolova