Sociology of Journalism
«Media Practices of Modern Primary School-Aged Children»
This paper analyses the media practices of children aged 8–10 studying in the third grade of four Moscow schools. In the study, the method of a survey conducted in the online format was used. Overall, 142 questionnaires were analysed. As a result, it was revealed that only television captivates children’s attention the way the Internet does. Often TV serves as a kind of socializer that can unite people and help them to create a joint experience. By contrast, the use of the Internet is largely an individual media practice. The questions about radio evoke a lot of negative feedback. We attribute this to the fact that it is the only kind of media that children cannot break off contact with on their own, because mostly they listen to the radio in a car together with their parents, and they themselves are hardly the initiators of this media practice. Print media turns out to be the least popular type of media among all. The explanation is simple: the print market today fails to provide products of interest to the children of this age.
Keywords: media consumption, children’s audience, media practices, primary schoolers
Mayya I. Davletshina
Modern Journalism: Subjects and Issues
«Conflict on the Agenda of Russian News Agencies: a Study in the Context of Constructive Journalism»
Along with other news values, a conflict is an evident selective criterion for an informatively attractive topic always remaining an essential element of news agendas formulated in textbooks for novice journalists and in the editorial standards of media companies. A conflict is usually associated with such a property of a piece of news as negativity. It is supported by a common professional stereotype: bad news sells. This approach has opponents who adhere to a relatively new concept of constructive journalism, which focuses not on conflicts as such but on the ways to resolve them, it covers not only conflicts as bad news but offers a constructive alternative to conflicts. The authors of the article studied the materials of Russian news agencies for the presence of elements of constructive journalism in them. The content analysis of the news sample allowed them to draw conclusions about the frequency of conflict stories in the news, the preferred types of conflicts and the scale and phases of conflicts. Special attention is paid to the indicators that make it possible to establish the presence or absence of constructive journalism approaches including the likely ways to solve problems, a diversity of “voices”, a variety of presented points of view, positions and resources, of the context and the background of the stories. The authors believe that this kind of information that introduces a constructive framework is absolutely necessary in news agendas for covering various kinds of conflicts and crises.
Keywords: conflict, piece of news, news value, constructive journalism, news agency
Maria M. Lukina, Anna V. Tolokonnikova
Theory of Journalism and Media
«Towards Socio-Political Values of Russian Youth: a Media Centered Approach»
Modern Russian youth is becoming the most vulnerable part of Russian society: the political, economic and cultural transformations have a powerful impact on the formation of the personality of young citizens and their values. The media as the main platform for the political socialization of modern youth has an obvious value-forming potential; it significantly influences the forms and directions of integration behaviour and lifestyles of the younger generation. Young people shape the space of life and activity around them on the basis of a complex system of values based on individual preferences, ideals, symbols and reference points, while linking it to the global socio-political field and localizing it often in the media and communication space, including the space of social networks. The ongoing transformations enable one to speak about the relevance of studying the socio-political values of young people in the framework of the media-centric paradigm. The study of socio-political values is characterized by an interdisciplinary approach: an issue is of interest in the context of philosophical, cultural, sociological, political science and psychological research. However, recent studies in political science, psychology and media communication have shown that the younger generation is largely oriented towards the values of self-expression and self-actualization, using the media communication space rather than the real communication space. The experience of Russia and other countries demonstrates that the last decade has seen a significant increase in the involvement of young people in global issues. However, despite the active growth of media activism, interest in political events and politics in general in Russian youth groups is still not pronounced enough and is often accompanied by a lack of critical thinking skills and a tendency to borrow assessments from older generations. This article attempts to theorise the values of Russian youth and analyse the ways and mechanisms of their transmission in the digital media environment. The materials obtained will help to analyse the ways and trajectories of disseminating information about current socio-political and cultural events in the social media space in the next stage of the study.
Keywords: values, youth, mediatization of politics, society, state
Anna N. Gureeva, Maria E. Anikina, Olga V. Muronets, Elina V. Samorodova
«Potential for Non-Institutionalized Creators of Entertainment and Educational Content to Influence the Audience »
This paper is the first attempt to understand, on Russian material, the nature of influence exerted by bloggers/influencers creating messages unrelated to socio-political discourse (musical clips, viral videos, commercial streams, videos about child rearing, cooking, healthy lifestyle, sports, traveling, hobbies and the like) on their audiences. Producers of this type of content do exert a frequently used influence on their audience, which is not limited to marketing one. It is possible to draw a conclusion about a huge potential of this influence, which might be useful for social and political mobilization. So far user activism encouraged by non-political influencers is mostly found online: the level of transit of active actions from online to offline with online users of edutainment blogger content is not very high, and “clicktivism” remains the most popular action users are prepared to perform at bloggers’ request.
Keywords: bloggers, influencers, non-institutionalized media, edutainment content, audience, influence
Mikhail I. Makeenko, Andrei V. Vyrkovsky
«Communication Specificity of Citation in the Media Environment in Terms of the Opposition Speech Form – Speech Action»
The work is written on the basis of an analysis of two author’s television programs. The situation often found in oral media speech when the presenter quotes someone else’s text is investigated. The quoted fragment is originally a typical compositional speech form, formed by the author with a certain communication purpose and fixed in writing. The quoter on the basis of this written speech structure forms his speech action, which has a new, relevant communication status. The new speech action corresponds to the communication situation in which the quoter finds himself and correlates with the particular coordinates of social space-time. Forming a new speech action on the basis of the quoted written compositional speech form, the presenter actively uses non-verbal semiotic systems – intonation, facial expressions, gestures and the like. In polemical media discourse, this device is often used both to discredit individual speech actions of the opponent and to lower his social and communication status as a whole. The speech technique of this polemical device is described and analyzed on the basis of speech material of N. Mikhalkov’s program “Besogon TV” and V. Solovyov’s program “Full Contact”.
Keywords: compositional speech form, speech action, oral speech, polycode speech, communication status of speech form
Vladimir I. Konkov, Tatiana A. Solomkina
«Methodology for Identifying Contextual Ideologemes in Digital Media Discourse (a Case Study of Media Discourse about Covid-19 Pandemic)»
The article discusses the issue of tools for studying digital media discourse and proposes a method for identifying contextual ideologemes in media texts. The rationale of the methodology is based on the analysis of the terminological and theoretical field of the ideologeme. It is argued that the linguistic phenomenon “contextual ideologeme” reflects in digital media discourse the meaning and features of the impact of the media text. It is proved on the material of media texts about the COVID-19 pandemic (the resources the empirical base relies on are as follows: Gazeta.Ru; RBC; BBC News Russian Service; Lenta.ru; Life; Meduza; March 2020 – February 2021) that the proposed methodology is capable of determining contextual ideologemes on the material of large arrays of digitized media texts, while a formalized procedure allows the creation of verifiable scientific knowledge. As a result of approbation of the methodology, the contextual ideologemes of the Russian-language media discourse about the first wave (“new virus”/“coronavirus”) and the second wave (“vaccination”) of the COVID-19 pandemic are named, common to the media under study, and such a characteristic of the ideologeme as distortion is problematized.
Keywords: contextual ideologeme, digital media discourse, pandemic, COVID-19
Nadezhda K. Radina
History of Journalism
«Correspondent of the St. Petersburg (Petrograd) Telegraph Agency A. I. Markov »
The article is devoted to the life and work of A.I. Markov, a journalist, economist, resident correspondent of the St. Petersburg (Petrograd) Telegraph Agency in Berlin. Information about him is fragmentary, even the dates of his life have not yet been established. The article is also aimed at an in-depth study of the PTA correspondent network in Europe on the eve and during the First World War. The study involved PTA documents of 1906–1917 and new archival materials to Markov’s biography. After graduating from the University of T bingen in 1888, he published several books in German, including self-study guides and translations of works of famous Russian writers. Markov’s good knowledge of Germany was the main reason for his appointment as the Agency’s Berlin correspondent. However, a different scale of tasks and level of responsibility awaited him there. Although Markov was a talented observer, he did not possess the most important qualities for a correspondent – speed of action, brevity and capacity of messages. He often sent insignificant, wordy and expensive messages to St. Petersburg and constantly lagged behind competitors from Russian newspapers. His move to Stockholm was not a very good idea, since a more convenient point for transmitting telegrams from Europe was Copenhagen. Despite criticism from the Agency’s management, Markov worked in Berlin and Stockholm for more than ten years, as for the Foreign Ministry he was a valuable observer in Germany and Sweden. Only the revolution of 1917 was a sufficient condition for his dismissal.
Keywords: Petrograd Telegraph Agency, Press and Information Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, correspondent, A. I. Markov, O. I. Lamkert, I. Ya. Gurlyand, A. V. Neklyudov
Igor K. Bogomolov
«Publicism of A. I. Solzhenitsyn in the Dialogue with Ideas of F. M. Dostoevsky about Orthodoxy»
The aim of this article is to conduct a comparative analysis of the conservative ideas of A. I. Solzhenitsyn and F. M. Dostoevsky about the Orthodoxy. A detailed text analysis of Dostoevsky’s “The Diary of the Writer” and of Solzhenitsyn’s publicism allows to understand that the issue of the Orthodox faith was a key idea for the authors. Research results show that both authors consider the issues of monarchy, national idea, conduct polemics with socialism through the prism of Orthodoxy. However, different historical epochs explain the specificity of the theme of Orthodoxy in the publicism of Dostoevsky and Solzhenitsyn and make it possible to see in their “dialogue” not only consonance, but also disagreement. Each of them connected the national idea with faith, but Dostoevsky proved Russia’s global mission of carrying Orthodoxy to the whole world. Solzhenitsyn urged to concentrate on internal problems. Dostoevsky’s journalism focuses on the ideas of Christ. For Solzhenitsyn, faith becomes the central theme but religious issues are considered in a more abstract way.
Keywords: F. M. Dostoevsky, A. I. Solzhenitsyn, Orthodoxy, Christianity, journalism, socialism, monarchy, national idea
Kseniya A. Kulko