Theory of Journalism and Media
«Media and Conflicts: a Study of Their Mutual Interaction in Current Academic Discourse»
The paper discusses theoretical issues of interaction between the media and conflicts. The paper studies what types of conflict have become the subject of research by leading Russian and foreign academic journals in the field of media, on which theoretical and methodological approach the study of the conflict was based, which subjects of the conflict are key in the analyzed articles. It was revealed that the main role in the escalation of the conflict belongs to completely different actors: the media, the government, civil society or communities, specific individuals. Ethical principles become the most significant factors in conflict development. This applies both to the media and to the specific communication practices of individuals. The study of academic discourse has highlighted the fundamental importance of ethics and morality as key determinants of conflict development. The discussion raised the question of the need to cultivate ethical and moral values as opposed to the anti-value of “conflict” in accordance with the theory of communicative action by Jurgen Habermas.
Keywords: conflict, media, meta-analysis, subject of conflict, ethics, morality
Elena L. Vartanova, Denis V. Dunas, Anna A. Gladkova
«Information Risks in the Conditions of Interaction Between Power and Society»
The article is aimed at identifying some risks emerging in the process of communicative and informational interaction between government bodies and society, which can result in information and social apathy among the population and, ultimately, lead to a decrease in the government’s authority in the society. The introduction to the paper brings forth the idea of the necessity for government bodies, willing to establish effective communicative interaction with the society based on the use of new information transfer forms, to adapt the applied communication models taking into account their characteristics. The subject of the research is the models of the Vologda region government’s information interaction in the process of constructing a discourse with the society in the Internet space. In carrying out the research, comparative analysis methods were used to distinguish between coincidences and specific features of the communication practices applied on various media platforms. In order to highlight the main meanings in the materials posted by the regional government bodies on the Internet, the method of content analysis was used. To identify the effectiveness of the current discourse of power and society, the method of reconstructing the image of the addressee, to whom the information content is directed, was applied in the research. The authors came to the conclusion that in the conditions of excessive political influence, new publicity forms introduced by the government authorities in the Internet space, require to be adapted for their application based on the use of traditional communication channels. Otherwise, public consciousness is likely to develop social apathy, which may be caused, among other reasons, by a loss of interest in the life of the region, since only events and facts are recorded in the information flow without explaining their economic feasibility for the residents.
Keywords: digitalization, online space, risks, threats, information interaction, power, society
Evgeny A. Markov, Svetlana A. Solovyeva
History of Journalism
«Dostoevsky’s Work in the Assessments of the Russian Historical Press (1881–1917)»
In this article, the perception of creative heritage of F.M. Dostoevsky in 1881–1917 is for the first time considered on the material of publications in historical as well as historical and literary journals Russkaya Starina, Russky Arkhiv, Istorichesky Vestnik, Golos Minuvshego and Byloe. The research sources are memoirs, essays, critiques, notes, reviews of Russian and foreign books and periodicals; among them there are little-known and forgotten texts. The article covers the main interpretations of F. M. Dostoevsky’s work reflected in these publications. The author of the article identifies two stages based on historical events: 1881–1904, 1905–1917. An attempt is made to reveal the specifics of publications in the historical press, to establish their historical and cultural context. The author comes to the conclusion about the sharp polarity of assessments of F. M. Dostoevsky’s work during the period under review. The attitude to the writer’s personality and ideas often influences the perception of his literary works. In journal texts, the literary-critical theories of that time are reflected, but in a number of publications there are original opinions and an anticipation of some ideas, which later became widespread in Dostoevistics.
Keywords: F. M. Dostoevsky, historical journalism, Russkaya Starina, Russky Arkhiv, Istorichesky Vestnik, Golos Minuvshego, Byloe
Daria E. Kulikova
«Emergence and Development of Hunting Periodicals in Pre-Revolutionary Russia»
The article examines the stages and conditions of the emergence of hunting journalism in pre-revolutionary Russia. The magazines under consideration are viewed in the context of the historical transformations in Russia in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century. Attention is focused on the interaction of a person, nature and society. The first hunting magazines appeared in the 1840s and 1860s as part of the sports press, in accordance with the English tradition having a great influence on the development of sports in Russia. In the 1870s and 1890s, a lot of nature and hunting magazines were published. Hunting helped scientists to study the world of wildlife, to find out the number of game species in different regions of the country. Travel reports were also published in the magazines. There were magazines on the canine topic to support hound hunting. During the years of the 1905 revolution and wars, the magazines wrote a lot about political events, weapons and their technical characteristics. By the year 1917, hunting was no longer associated with sports. Hunting magazines became independent, reflected the life of the industry and wrote about its success. The magazines were published at a high professional level. They were funded by hunting societies or existed at the expense of publishers themselves.
Keywords: hunting journalism, hunting subculture, man and nature, history of Russian journalism, specialized magazines, environmental journalism, hunting
Alina V. Lyapina
«Promotion of Feminist Ideas in Instagram Texts»
Instagram has become one of the most effective platforms for the formation of public opinion within particular social groups. Its rising popularity as well as the fact that 70% of its users are female makes Instagram a favorable platform for perpetuating feminist ideas. Based on discourse analysis of texts on macro and micro levels, this article describes the methods used by fem-bloggers for audience impact. In the course of the analysis, the authors of the article conclude that while many pieces of text are based on logical argumentation, the main method used by bloggers is persuasion and combining logical and structured information with techniques of emotional manipulation. Among the methods of psychological influence used by bloggers, the following techniques stand out: “manipulation of cards”, the “method of negative attribution groups”, “sticking labels”, “ridicule”, the “principle of contrast”, “emotional charging”, “enemy image”, “expressive blow”, “simplification”, polarization of assessments, hyperbolization and narrowing of context. In these cases, emotional contamination plays a special role. As a result of the analysis, the authors highlight the main topics of publications in support of feminism (domestic violence, victim blaming, ban on abortion, gender stereotypes, gender holidays, body positivity, misogyny, women in the workplace), their key ideas and the tools used for their promotion. The study also identifies the most popular attitudes that fem bloggers deconstruct in their posts: “gender roles are determined by nature”, “women can be condemned for their bodies”, “a woman must obey a man”, “female intelligence is worse than male”, “all women are hysterical”, “there is no friendship between genders”, and the like. The most popular lexical means used in fem blogs are metaphors, allusions, evaluative lexis and dysphemisms. Popular rhetorical techniques include addresses, appeals and rhetorical questions. Bloggers tend to use colloquial vocabulary to make texts easier to read. In general, it might be said that the techniques used by bloggers on Instagram are similar to those commonly used by journalists in traditional media. A striking difference from journalistic texts is the use of a large number of colloquial constructions, harsh criticism and increased emotionality.
Keywords: Instagram, blogging, feminism, means of influence
Alla M. Shesterina, Olga A. Fedosova
Sociology of Journalism
«The Problem of Self-Identification of Student Journalists in the Digital Age»
Addressing the problems of youth is actualized by globalization processes and the improvement of technologies, as well as by forecasting the strategic development of the world community. The modern Russian state system is marked by a high level of acutely critical attitude and protest potential of the digital generation. The behavioral strategy of its representatives is increasingly predetermined by the mobilization effects of the media. At the same time, it is also characterized by the destruction of the boundaries of privacy, the difficulty for young people to articulate their feelings and emotional experiences, problems that they face and prospects that they see for themselves. Essays and interviews with representatives of creative professions have become a sociological tool for obtaining information for this article. The expert group consisted of 226 bachelor and master students studying journalism. The use of this sociological tool minimizes efforts to identify issues that are relevant to young people, this can also contribute to the adoption of effective management decisions by representatives of various social institutions. The most urgent problem for most of the respondents was the problem of choosing the goal and means of self-realization. More than a third of respondents focused on psychological problems resulting from digitalization.
Keywords: youth, self-identification, digital reality, media sphere, generational differences, identity crisis, dialogue
Vladimir F. Oleshko, Evgeniy V. Oleshko, Olga S. Mukhina
Modern Journalism: Subjects and Issues
«Representativity of European Culture on Global Television News Channels»
This article examines the representativity of European culture on five global TV news channels (CNN International, BBC World News, Al Jazeera English, RT News and CGTN English) within the cases of three cultural components: science, art and religion. The study is based on the assumption that comparable media established in different regions of the world and using the same language make it possible to draw up a media image of European culture. The need for the study stems from the lack of papers on the coverage of pan-European culture and on comparative media studies of European culture, although the external perception of European culture is widely explored within other humanities. The results show that the components of European culture such as art and religion have an almost identical level of representativity on all global TV news channels, while the representation of European science varies from channel to channel.
Keywords: global television, European culture, television news channels, international relations
Maria D. Putseva