Theory of Journalism and Media
«Elaboration of Media Theories in Russian Academic Journals in the 2010s: Results of the First Stage of rhe Research»The article contains the results of a meta-study that was aimed at revealing current trends in the examination, conceptualization and elaboration of media theories in Russia. During the first stage of the study, more than 300 research articles published in 2012—2016 in five Russian academic journals were analyzed with a detailed consideration of the structure of the articles, keywords and literature and the use of particular authors and theories in the theoretical background. The data analysis reveals several trends in scientific discourse. The research tradition is still underdeveloped. The number of articles that follow the general rules for organizing a scientific text is minimal, and less than a quarter of all articles in the sample are based on original empirical or theoretical results. The objects of the study in the articles are centered around journalism, while many fields of media and communication research remain untouched. The theoretical background, as seen from the lists of books, authors and theories mentioned by researchers, is dominated by the philological and normative approaches. Most of the theoretical concepts are taken from Russian works or from a short list of Russian translations of foreign monographs, with many theories left unexplored and unused, which results in limited integration of Russian research discourse into the international context of media studies.
Keywords: meta-studies, media research, media theories, research article, scientific discourse, theoretical backgroundMikhail I. Makeenko 3
Education in Journalism
«A Student’s Independence in Writing a Graduation Thesis: the Experience of Journalistic Education in Russia and Sweden»The article describes the research project “Independence in writing a graduation thesis: the experience of journalistic and pedagogical education in Russia and Sweden”. This three-year interdisciplinary project is being conducted at the University of Sodertorn (Sweden) by researchers from the faculties of journalism and teacher education. The focus of the article is the interpretations of independence in journalistic education, especially in relation to the Russian practice. The text examines the concept of the project, the main directions of the study and features the ongoing research at the stage of its implementation.
Keywords: journalistic education, independence, graduation thesis, Bologna process, comparative studyGrigory D. Goldenzwaig 32
Television and Radio
«The Fifth Channel: Programming Strategies of the Second-Tier Universal Broadcaster»This article focuses on the issue of TV competitive programming. It explores the programming strategy of the Fifth Channel, a mass-appeal channel lagging slightly behind Russian “Big Three” channels in terms of share and rating. We investigate the formats which were selected for programming, as well as the application of some scheduling techniques such as “counterprogramming”, “blunting”, “blocking”, “flow strategies”, “seamlessness” in the key periods of the Fifth Channel’s history in the 21st century: the fall seasons of 2006 and 2010, the spring season of 2011 and the fall season of 2016. In conclusion, we can say that as a result of the evolution of its programming strategy the Fifth Channel has abandoned the concept of multigenre and multi-theme programming and reduced the number of foreign products on the air. Today, the Fifth is generally programmed in a way different from its possible competitors. The broadcaster is positioning itself as a “trendsetter in detective fashion” but at the same time the schedule includes formats that are traditional for mass-appeal channels: morning entertainment programs, news and information analytics. Frequently, the programmer applies the techniques of “blocking” and “seamlessness” to achieve maximum audience retention.
Keywords: programming, broadcast schedule, content strategy, counterprogramming, blockingYulia I. Dolgova , Vasilisa S. Zykova 52
History of Journalism
«Legal and Organizational Support for the Development of Mass Radio Broadcasting in the Ussr Under Nep»The article analyses the organizational characteristics of mass radio broadcasting in the USSR in the 1920s. Drawing on archival documents previously introduced into scientific circulation and some news ones, the author states that under NEP the state organized accountable commercial and public structures for more flexible development of the market for radio broadcasting and amateur radio and tried to develop radio broadcasting on the basis of self-sufficiency. However, by the end of the 1920s, with the change in the political and economic situation, the development of radio broadcasting in the country returned to the direct control of the state.
Keywords: mass radio broadcasting, USSR, NEPMaksim I. Babyuk 73
«The Image of a Witch in J. Updike’s Novel “The Witches of Eastwick”: Traditions and Innovation»The author gives a brief comparative analysis of the image of a witch and witchcraft in European Romantic and American literature, then links J. Updike’s novel “The Witches of Eastwick” with the traditions of his predecessors and finally emphasizes the novelty of the writer’s portrayal of witchcraft in the aforementioned book. The witch is traditionally portrayed as a woman associated with nature and possessing new knowledge. Updike uses this tradition in his novel with some modifications: he empowers his witches of Eastwick with a supernatural force and allows them to establish a new world order in the new American society. The witches, like tricksters, destroy the former order and transform the society into a grotesque matriarchy. As a result, the age-old disruption of the natural balance between men and women is far from being removed; moreover, the situation only deteriorates.
Keywords: American realism, Updike, “The Witches of Eastwick”, Salem witch trials, witch, mythologemNatalya V. Kuznetsova 101
«One’s Own Path: the Economic World of the Russian Manor in A.A. Fet’s Recollections»The article examines the depiction of the economic world of the Russian manor in pre- and post-reform Russia in A.A. Fet’s recollections. The analysis of his memoirs gives us a deeper understanding of Russia’s economic structure and allows us to do justice to the personality of A.A. Fet as a landlord avoiding any bias.
Keywords: A.A. Fet, A.N. Shenshin, memoirs, Stepanovka, Russian manor, economic structure, civilian laborNina V. Frolova 119
«Soviet and Contemporary Theatre Reviews as a Reflection of the Stylistics of the Time»When analyzing the condition of the language of modern media, it is worth to compare the stylistic characteristics of reviews of Soviet (from the 1960s till the 1980s) and contemporary performances based on the same literary source. Theatre critics note that in the 1960s — 1980s theatre as a cultural phenomenon acquired a special significance for the spiritual life of Soviet society. That is why theatre criticism of that period is also of special interest. In the course of a comparative analysis, the author identifies the factors which determine the style of the review including the influence of the performance on the language of the review as well as the connection of the style of the review with ideological factors in the Soviet period and with publicity factors in modern media. The main task of Soviet reviews was to fulfill the culture-forming function but not the entertaining and advertising ones. Such questions as genre contamination and the main tendencies in the stylistics of theatrical discourse in modern Russian media are also examined in the article. The performed analysis shows that the stylistics of theatre reviews is closely connected with the general tendencies in journalism, cultural condition and audience demands.
Keywords: theatrical discourse, theatre review of the Soviet period and contemporary one, stylistic characteristicsMargarita M. Gruzdeva 144
«Press Legislation in Greece before the Adoption of the First Media Law (1821–1931)»The history of the formation and development of press legislation in Greece has not been studied in Russia so far, nor has the Greek model of the relationship between the state and the media. This article is the first attempt to introduce these subjects into the Russian-language academic context. It is of interest for the study of the European media law because press legislation in Greece represents its inseparable part. The study of Greek legislative acts on the press makes it possible to identify the distinctions in the situation of the press in Greece and in other European states and also to understand how unique the relations of the state and the press were on the eve of modern Greece. The study of the legislation shows that in the period from 1821 to 1931, under conditions of permanent changes in the political situation, the stable tendency of opposition and confrontation between the state and the press continued. Before the law 5060/1931 “On the press, insults to honor in general and other orders” was adopted, print media were subject to severe punishments and criminal persecution. At the same time, however, Greece proved to be one of the first European states where the idea of self-regulation of the press emerged.
Keywords: Greece, press, media legislation, press legislation, media lawOlga A. Bogdanova 162
Modern Journalism: Subjects and Issues
«Institutions Fighting Disinformation and Misinformation in Mass Media»The article focuses on the difference between the concepts of disinformation and misinformation and provides a brief history of these terms. As false information in mass media is not necessarily disinformation, it is correct to distinguish between these categories taking into account the criterion of intention. The author examines the existing social institutions in different countries that are engaged in fighting mis- and disinformation dividing them into major institutions like governmental committees or ministries and smaller ones like publishing houses. In a case study of the Dutch online publication DROG, the author analyzes the unusual strategy it uses and the way this strategy contributes to developing critical attitude towards information in different mass media.
Keywords: disinformation, misinformation, mass media, social institutions, fake newsEvgenii A. Samoshkin 176
Criticism and Bibliography
«Publications of Russian Post-Reform Conservatism as Viewed by Modern Reseachers »Book review: Badalyan D.A. (2016) “The Calling Bell”: Ivan Aksakov in Russian Journalism of the Late 1870s — the First Half of the 1880s. Monograph. Saint Petersburg: Rostok Publ.Росток, 2016.
Keywords: Russian Post-Reform ConservatismOlga S. Kruglikova 191