History of Journalism
«On the History of the Liberal Press: the Russkaya Molva Newspaper (1912–1913)»
A quality social and political publication designed for the broadest enlightened audience, the daily independent non-party newspaper Russkaya Molva (1912–1913) has not yet become the subject of researchers’ attention, although those studying the works of A. Blok, who published 2 articles and 5 poems there, know it very well. Many other writers and literary critics also contributed to the newspaper. Among them were A. Remizov, Sasha Chorny, L. Gurevich, B. Eihenbaum and others. For a long time, the assessments given to the newspaper by V. Lenin, who claimed it as bourgeois, pseudo-democratic and nationalistic, remained decisive. This article analyzes the content and direction of the newspaper based on the study of journalistic works, mainly of the publisher of Russkaya Molva D. Protopopov. The author concludes that the newspaper's reputation, formed under the influence of V. Lenin’s purely negative assessments, turns out to be false and requires revision. The role of Russkaya Molva in literature of the early 1910s is of great interest for researchers and needs to be further investigated.
Keywords: Russian Molva newspaper, D. Protopopov, A. Tyrkova-Williams, V. Lenin, liberalism, opposition, journalism
Ekaterina I. Orlova
«Forms of Advertising Communication with the Audience Adopted by Russian Theater in the First Half of the 19th Century»
Up until mid-19th century, Russian theater seemed to survive without full-fledged information sources: censorship rigidly limited the publication of anything that was concerned with the Imperial stage; specialized theater periodicals were also few. However, due to a study of early media forms, it becomes clear that even under censorship theater had powerful information levers ensuring prompt and reliable communication with the audience. This communication implies daily oral announcements, playbills distributed among subscribers and information sheets. The article examines early communication forms and traces their influence on further development of theater journalism.
Keywords: theater, theater journalism, theater criticism, theater periodicals, playbills, history of communication, media communications
Viktor V. Borzenko
«The Role of Media in the Formation of the Image of M. Kutuzov: to the Background of Two Facts»
This article is devoted to the role of media in the formation of the image of M. Kutuzov, in particular during the Great Patriotic War. The article was prepared on the basis of a report presented at the round table "Journalism and Wars: Historical Experience" of the International Scientific Forum "Media in the Modern World. 59th Petersburg Readings" (November 9–12, 2020). The authors were tasked with identifying the popular cases associated with Kutuzov’s personality and showing how media participated in their formation. The attention was focused on two subjects related to the image of the commander: the wound, as a result of which he allegedly lost his eye, and the problem of burying his heart. The work was carried out based on materials from the funds of the Russian National Library, publications in the media, and documents from a private collection. As a result of the study, the authors conclude that in the conditions of war, the mythologization of the image of the commander pursued both a mobilization goal (during the Great Patriotic War, the heroic image of Kutuzov called for a feat, was an example of courage for soldiers) and a propaganda goal, which consisted in representing the failures of the first stage of the Great Patriotic War as a stage of preparation for a counteroffensive. The origin of the story about the burial of Kutuzov's heart on the territory of another state could be a response to the aggravation of the foreign policy situation on the eve of the First World War.
Keywords: M. Kutuzov, propaganda, mobilization, history
Liudmila P. Gromova, Timur T. Zainullin, Polina I. Zainullina
Theory of Journalism and Media
«Slow Photography: between the Image and the Word»
The article examines the current phenomenon of ‘slow photography’ as a form of ‘slow culture’, which is currently in great demand in the media. Two approaches to the creation of ‘slow photography’ are considered: reconstructive and creative ones. The article interprets the works of the 20th–21st century photographers who use literary writing and drawing over photography: François-Marie Banier, Adam Broomberg & Oliver Chanarin, Igor Klepnev. The author analyzes linear and nonlinear relationships of multidimensional photographic text, whose density reaches maximum concentration when using codes of several sign systems, which complicates and slows down the process of creating and decoding such a text for the reader/viewer. The relationship between the categories of space and time in photo text is studied (in particular, the issue of ‘pseudo-time’ and spatial ‘gap’; the categories of being still and lasting). The article also presents the value paradigm of meanings embedded in the photo stories and photo drawings (in particular, the problem of cultivating memory and ‘getting out of memory’). As a result, the place of ‘slow photography’ in the modern media space is defined as the threshold one – between literature and painting, and also as the intermediate one – between the documentary and the artistic.
Keywords: slow photography, slow media, time, code, word, image, photo text
Svetlana Yu. Sidorova
Modern Journalism: Subjects and Issues
«Political Cartoons in Foreign Media»
The timeliness of the present theoretical study is determined by the growing popularity of various forms of visual content in modern media, where traditional multimodal texts compete with emerging new forms. Thus, the article aims at revealing the uniqueness and undying relevance of political cartoons as a traditional genre of media communication. To achieve the aforementioned goal, a comparative analysis of cartoons and memes was conducted, a list of socially important events triggered by cartoons was presented, and a review of foreign research on this subject was made. Taking into account the results achieved, the author concludes that despite a wide variety of visualization means, cartoons as a genre fill their own niche in the media as a complex mechanism of satire production, possessing political potential. Therefore, there seem to be no obstacles on the way to further development of this genre on the Internet.
Keywords: political cartoon, meme, visualization, mobilization, cartoon scandal
Julia V. Balakina
«Characteristics of Innovations in International Media Discourse»
The relevance of this research is determined by the complex, multicomponent structure of the concept of ‘innovation’, successfully adapted to management, sociology and other areas of knowledge, while the operation of this concept in media discourse, wherein it is actively used, remains very poorly studied. This also gives rise to a lack of tailored analysis for media content dedicated to innovations. Research into media discourse on innovations will ultimately clarify why some innovations are vigorously debated and never lose their popularity, while others remain unknown and fade. This paper presents the results of the content analysis of media materials on the InoSMI online resource. In particular, an attempt was made to determine the characteristics of innovations in the international media context searching for publications by the tag “innovat”. The author explores thematic and genre orientation of the texts, the key characters of the publications devoted to innovations and also considers the visibility of the innovation classification from management in media discourse. The analysis revealed the key characteristics of innovations used in foreign media texts, as well as the texts about innovations themselves. The key finding is that the innovation classification adapted from management can be equally well used in the content analysis of media discourse. At the same time, a large number of publications in international media discourse are devoted to the topic of innovations, and the characteristics of these innovations are rather transparent. Thus, the study opens up prospects for further research in the chosen area.
Keywords: innovation, international media discourse, media discourse on innovations, characteristics of innovations, classification of innovations
Tamara M. Gromova
«Properties of Journalism as a Manifestation of Regularities»
The article is a theoretical study of the laws of journalism. It consists of an introduction, four chapters, and conclusions. The purpose of the article is to draw the audience's attention to the aspect of journalism, which gives grounds to relegate it to self-regulating, self-developing social systems and makes it possible to significantly widen the view of the mechanisms of its operation. In the introduction and the first chapter, the authors characterize the properties of self-managed systems that are recognized in theoretical and empirical studies as general systemic qualities and also show how these qualities manifest themselves in journalism, confirming its systemic nature. The second and third chapters consistently consider the manifestations of integrity, structure, functionality, self-regulation and self-development of journalism, which speak about the legitimacy of including it into the class of self-developing social systems. In the fourth chapter, the authors identify new aspects in the considered characteristics of journalism, which allow us to somewhat deepen the existing ideas about the mechanisms of its operation. Attention is focused on the fact that the listed properties of journalism, synthesized by observing their external manifestations, are distinguished by stability, repeatability, and commitment. These features are also inherent in the internal, unobservable essential connections of self-regulating entities, which are displayed in scientific theories as the category "law". The totality of such connections in the system (the totality of laws) is designated in scientific discourse as the category "regularities". This theoretical concept is correlated with the considered properties of journalism: they show the result of the action of its laws. These patterns represent the mechanism of operation and development of journalism. At the same time, they act as laws of broad action, since journalism bears the general characteristics of self-developing systems and, therefore, functions on the basis of general laws. However, the fact that specific properties are also found in journalism suggests that other laws are also involved in the mechanism of its operation. The need to identify them is considered by the authors of the article as an important scientific problem that calls for research, since its solution can open up new opportunities for the development of journalism.
Keywords: self-developing systems, journalism as a system, operation and development of journalism, law and regularity, general and specific properties
Galina V. Lazutina, Ivan A. Pankeev
«Towards the Interaction between Literature and Journalism: the Experience of Spanish-Speaking Countries»
The article examines the phenomenon of literary journalism in Spain and Latin America. The authors of the article pay their main attention to its theoretical understanding and its development in the Spanish-speaking world. The relevance of the topic is confirmed by the fact that the issues of interaction between literature and journalism are being actively discussed today in the scientific and academic community. The article outlines a general tendency to strengthen the author's principle in journalistic works, which affects the transformation of traditional genres. Considering the chronicle as the quintessence of narrative journalism in Latin America, the authors reveal the connection between the works of literary journalism of Spanish-speaking countries and their mentality and national identity. They underline an increasing role of literary journalism in modern communication and its potential influence on the formation of public opinion. Thus, there is a need to take into account the development of this creative phenomenon in the professional training of future journalists.
Keywords: literary journalism, narrative journalism, chronicle, genre hybrid, journalism theory, communication theory
Veronica M. Sokolova, Elena V. Koreneva