Motivation Factors in Media Consumption of "Digital Youth" in Russia: Results of a Pilot Study

Download paper
Denis V. Dunas

PhD in Philology, Leading Researcher at the Chair of Media Theory and Economics, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

e-mail: dunas.denis@smi.msu.ru
Sergei A. Vartanov

PhD in Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor at the Chair of Econometrics and Mathematical Methods in Economics, Moscow School of Economics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

e-mail: sergvart@gmail.com
Diana Yu. Kulchitskaya

PhD in Philology, Associate Professor at the Chair of New Media and Theory of Communication, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

e-mail: diana.kulchitskaya@gmail.com
Elena A. Salikhova

Lecturer at the Chair of Media Theory and Economics, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

e-mail: ekostyuk19@gmail.com
Anna V. Tolokonnikova

PhD in Philology, Associate Professor at the Chair of Mass Media Theory and Economics, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

e-mail: a.tolokonnikova@mail.ru

Section: Sociology of Journalism

This paper summarizes the results of in-depth interviews conducted with Russian young people in the age bracket from 10 to 19. The research was aimed at studying media consumption of “digital youth” in Russia and identifying the factors influencing the choice of this or that media outlet. At the first stage of the project, 24 youths and girls were interviewed in three Russian cities: Moscow, Rostov-on-Don and Nizhny Novgorod. The results indicated that in the structure of youth media consumption online media are at the top, while traditional media either do not attract young people whatsoever or stay in the background. In the course of the study, it was found that today social networks and online media are not merely a platform for communicating and satisfying basic information needs but are also involved in youth’s self-actualization. Creating videos and other types of content for different online platforms is an activity which is part of creative self-expression and a search for identity. The pilot study conducted makes it possible to envisage all the possible answers for the closed questions and include them into the questionnaires of a mass representative survey of all groups of youth, which is to be carried out at the next stage of the study.

Keywords: “digital youth”, media consumption, motivation factors, media, media needs, media socialization, self-actualization
DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2020.327

References:

Berger J. (2014) Word of Mouth and Interpersonal Communication: a Review and Directions for Future Research. Journal of Consumer Psychology 24 (4): 586–607. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2014.05.002

Berger P. L., Luckmann T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality: a Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Doubleday & Company.

Chen C.-P. (2014) Forming Digital Self and Parasocial Relationships on YouTube. Journal of Consumer Culture 16 (1): 232–254. DOI: 10.1177/1469540514521081

Couldry N., Hepp A. (2016) The Mediated Construction of Reality. Cambridge: Polity.

Courtois C., Mechant P., Paulussen S., De Marez L. (2011) The Triple Articulation of Media Technologies in Teenage Media Consumption. New Media & Society 14 (3): 401–420. DOI: 10.1177/1461444811415046

December J. (1996) Units of Analysis for Internet Communication. Journal of Communication 46 (1): 14–38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1996.tb01459.x

Deci E. L., Ryan R. M. (2008) Self-Determination Theory: a Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development and Health. Canadian Psychology 49: 182–185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012801

Dimmick J., Chen Y., Li Z. (2004) Competition Between the Internet and Traditional News Media: the Gratification-Opportunities Niche Dimension. The Journal of Media Economics 17 (1): 19–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327736me1701_2

Dunas D. V., Tolokonnikova A. V., Cherevko T. S. (2018) Nablyudenie za potrebleniem informacionnogo kontenta studentami fakul’teta zhurnalistiki MGU [Monitoring the Consumption of Information Content by Students of the Faculty of Journalism of Moscow State University]. Mediaskop 4. DOI: 10.30547/mediascope.4.2018.1 (In Russian)

Dunas D. V., Vartanov S. A., Kul’chickaya D. Yu., et al. (2019) Teoreticheskie aspekty izucheniya mediapotrebleniya rossijskoj molodezhi: k peresmotru teorii ispol’zovaniya i udovletvoreniya [Theoretical Aspects of Studying the Media Consumption of Russian Youth: to the Revision of the Theory of Uses and Gratifications]. Vestn. Mosk. un-ta. Ser. 10: Zhurnalistika 2: 3–28. DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.2.2019.328 (In Russian)

Filatkina G. S., Davletshina M. I. (2019) Mediapotreblenie molodezhi: teoreticheskij obzor issledovanij (na primere Ispanii, Brazilii, Argentiny i Meksiki) [Youth Media Consumption: a Theoretical Survey of Research (case studies of Spain, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico)]. MediaАl’manah 3: 95–103. DOI: 10.30547/mediaalmanah.3.2019.95103 (In Russian)

Fink C. (1996) Strategic Newspaper Management. New York: McGraw-Hill College.

Guadagno R. E., Rempala D. M., Murphy S., Okdie B. M. (2013) What Makes a Video Go Viral? An Analysis of Emotional Contagion and Internet Memes. Computers in Human Behavior 29 (6): 2312–2319. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.016

Hatfield E., Cacioppo J. T., Rapson R. L. (1993) Emotional Contagion. Current Directions in Psychological Science 2 (3): 96–100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770953

Hepp A. (2016) Pioneer Communities: Collective Actors in Deep Mediatisation. Media, Culture & Society 38 (6): 918–933. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443716664484

Ho J. Y. C., Dempsey M. (2010) Viral Marketing: Motivations to Forward Online Content. Journal of Business Research 63 (9–10): 1000–1006.

Homans G. (1958) Social Behavior as Exchange. American Journal of Sociology 63 (6): 597–606.

Jia W. (2017) Towards a Discipline of Life Communication? Journal of Multicultural Discourses 12 (1): 23–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17447143.2017.1281285

Katz E., Blumler J. G., Gurevitch M. (1973) Uses and Gratifications Research. Public Opinion Quarterly 37 (4): 509–523. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/268109

Kaye B. K., Johnson T. J. (2002) Online and in the Know: Uses and Gratifications of the Web for Political Information. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 46 (1): 54–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4601_4

Kul’chickaya D. Yu. (2019) Specifika mediapotrebleniya v vostochnoj i yugo-vostochnoj Azii [Media Consumption in East and Southeast Asia]. MediaAl’manah 1: 140–147. DOI: 10.30547/mediaalmanah.1.2019.140146 (In Russian)

Kul’chickaya D. Yu., Vartanov S. A., Dunas D. V. et al. (2019) Mediapotreblenie molodezhi: specifika metodologii issledovaniya [Youth Media Consumption: Specifics of Research Methodology]. Mediaskop 1. (In Russian). Available at: http://www.mediascope.ru/2529 (accessed: 25.03.2020). DOI: 10.30547/mediascope.1.2019.9 

Kümpel A. S., Karnowski V., Keyling T. (2015) News Sharing in Social Media: a Review of Current Research on News Sharing Users, Content, and Networks. Social Media + Society 1 (2). DOI: 10.1177/2056305115610141

Kurzban R., Burton-Chellew M. N., West S. A. (2015) The Evolution of Altruism in Humans. Annual Review of Psychology 66: 575–599. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015355

Lang P. J., Bradley M. M. (2010) Emotion and the Motivational Brain. Biological Psychology 84 (3): 437–450. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.10.007

Lasswell H. (1948) The Structure and Function of Communication in Society. In L. Bryson (ed.) The Communication of Ideas. New York: Harper & Row. Pp. 37–51.

Lee C. S., Ma L. (2012) News Sharing in Social Media: the Effect of Gratifications and Prior Experience. Computers in Human Behavior 28 (2): 331–339.

Livingstone S. (2008) Taking Risky Opportunities in Youthful Content Creation: Teenagers’ Use of Social Networking Sites for Intimacy, Privacy and Self-Expression. New Media & Society 10 (3): 393–411. DOI: 10.1177/1461444808089415

Luhmann N. (2000) The Reality of Mass Media. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Lunt P., Livingstone S. (2016) Is ‘Mediatization’ the New Paradigm for Our Field? A Commentary on Deacon and Stanyer (2014, 2015) and Hepp, Hjarvard and Lundby (2015). Media, Culture & Society 38 (3): 462–470. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443716631288

Maslow A. (1970) Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Bros. 

McQuail D. (2002) Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage.

Monteiro S. (2019) “Welcome to Selfiestan”: Identity and the Networked Gaze in Indian Mobile Media. Media, Culture & Society. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443719846610

Palmgreen P., Wenner L. A., Rayburn J. (1980) Relations Between Gratifications Sought and Obtained: a Study of Television News. Communication Research 7 (2): 161–192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009365028000700202

Park C. S., Kaye B. K. (2018) Smartphone and Self-Extension: Functionally, Anthropomorphically, and Ontologically Extending Self Via the Smartphone. Mobile Media and Communication 7 (2): 215–231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2050157918808327

Quan-Haase A., Young A. (2010) Uses and Gratifications of Social Media: a Comparison of Facebook and Instant Messaging. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 30: 350–361. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0270467610380009

Shi-xu (2016) Cultural Discourse Studies through the Journal of Multicultural Discourses: 10 Years on. Journal of Multicultural Discourses 11: 1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17447143.2016.1150936

Soldatova G. U., Rasskazova E. I. (2016) Modeli cifrovoj kompetentnosti i deyatel’nost’ rossijskih podrostkov onlajn [Digital Competence Models and Online Activities of Russian Teenagers]. Nacional’nyj psihologicheskij zhurnal 2 (22): 50–60. DOI: 10.11621/npj.2016.0205 (In Russian)

Soldatova G. U., Rasskazova E. I. (2017) “Cifrovaya” situaciya razvitiya mezhpokolencheskih otnoshenij: razryv i vzaimodejstvie mezhdu podrostkami i roditelyami v Internete [The “Digital” Situation of the Development of Intergenerational Relations: the Gap and Interaction Between Teenagers and Their Parents on the Internet]. Mir psihologii 1: 134 –143. (In Russian)

Soldatova G. U., Rasskazova Ye. I., Nestik T. A. (2017) Tsifrovoye pokoleniye Rossii: kompetentnost’ i bezopasnost’ [The Digital Generation of Russia: Competence and Safety]. Moscow: Smysl Publ. (In Russian)

Sundar S. S., Limperos A. M. (2013) Uses and Grats 2.0: New Gratifications for New Media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 57 (4): 504–525. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2013.845827

Takahashi T. (2010) MySpace or Mixi? Japanese Engagement with SNS (Social Networking Sites) in the Global Age. New Media & Society 12 (3): 453– 475. DOI: 10.1177/1461444809343462

Vartanova E. L. (2001) Novye problemy i novye prioritety cifrovoj epohi [New Challenges and New Priorities of the Digital Age]. Informacionnoe obshchestvo 3. (In Russian)

Vartanova E. L. (2013) The Media and the Individual: Economic and Psychological Interrelations. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art 6 (1): 110– 118. DOI: 10.11621/pir.2013.0110

Vartanova E. L. (2014) Postsovetskie transformacii rossijskih SMI i zhurnalistiki [Post-Soviet Transformations of Russian Media and Journalism]. Moscow: MediaMir. (In Russian)

Vartanova E. L. (2015) Sovremennye rossijskie issledovaniya SMI: obnovlenie teoreticheskih podhodov [Modern Russian Media Studies: Updating Theoretical Approaches]. Vestn. Mosk. un-ta. Ser. 10: Zhurnalistika 6: 5–26. (In Russian)

Vartanova E. L. (ed.) (2019) Ot teorii zhurnalistiki k teorii media. Dinamika mediaissledovanij v sovremennoj Rossii [From Journalism Theory to Media Theory. The Dynamics of Media Research in Modern Russia]. Moscow: MSU Publ.; MSU Faculty of Journalism. (In Russian)

Vartanova E. (2019) Russian Media: a Call for Theorising the Economic Change. Russian Journal of Communication 11: 22–36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19409419.2019.1572531

Vartanov S. A., Gureeva A. N., Dunas D. V., Tkacheva N. V. (2016) K voprosu o teoreticheskom ponimanii novostej v cifrovuyu ehpohu: transformaciya struktury, sil vliyaniya, zhiznennogo cikla [Towards the Theoretical Understanding of News in the Digital Age: the Transformation of Structure, Forces of Influence and Life Cycle]. Vestn. Mosk. un-ta. Ser. 10: Zhurnalistika 3: 3–16. (In Russian)

Vyugina D. (2019) Generation Z in Russia: the Digital Divide of the Generation Putin. In C. Scholz, A. Rennig (eds.) Generations Z in Europe (The Changing Context of Managing People). Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited. Pp. 253–274.