Russian Journalism between Normative and Actual: Russian National Print and Online Media Managers’ and Owners’ Views (Public Statements)

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Alexander V. Kolesnichenko

PhD in Philology, Associate Professor at the Chair of Periodical Press, Faculty of Journalism, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia


Section: Theory of Journalism and Media

The article presents the results of research of Russian national print and online media managers’ and owners’ views on journalism goals and actual role, normative and real media-state and media-audience relations. The results are based on the analysis of media managers’ and owners’ public statements and editorial stylebooks. The results show that normative and positivist views on journalism goals and media and state relations differ drastically. Media must be business and independent critic, but they are state financed and controlled propaganda tools. The normative and positivist views on media and audience relations coincide. Media should match audience information needs, interests and expectations, and it’s actually so.

Keywords: journalism, mission, media business, press freedom, media and state, media audience