Functional Model of Travel Media Text in Travel Magazines of the Early 20th Century

Download paper
Ivan V. Kalinin

PhD student at the Higher School of Journalism and Mass Com­munications, St. Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia


Section: History of Journalism

In early 20th century Russia, travel texts corresponded to a growing tourist audience and industry. Sports tourism (walks, biking, mountaineering), recreational tourism (staying at cottages, resorts), educational tourism (school excursions), cultural and business trips developed. Information support was provided by travel guides and magazines for travelers. Such publications as “Poezdki za granitsu” (1907–1908), “Prekrasnoe daleko” (1912–1915), “Russkaya Riviera” (1915–1916) came into existence. In magazines and guidebooks, there emerged travel media text based on a functional model consisting of seven compulsory elements: 1) presentation of the linguistic frame “another country” and its slots; 2) organizational function; 3) concept of “travel”; 4) detailed route; 5) presence of verbal and non-verbal components of the text; 6) incentive; 7) reflection of ethnic and cultural stereotypes. The number of slots in the frame “another country” determines the type of travel media text: advertising one or detailed one. The organizational function is complemented by entertainment and enlightenment. Travel media text is of aesthetic and cognitive interest for the reader and emphasizes the concept of “travel”, which in Russian linguistic culture is associated with the manifestation of the opposition ours/theirs. The author fixes the main landmarks of the route – the places where the movement stops (hotels, restaurants, museums, viewing points). The incentive of travel media text is connected with the intention to persuade. Recommendation as a speech action distinguishes travel media text from travelogue, ethnographic and political text. Positive ethnic stereotypes are revealed in the text while negative ones are mocked, destroyed or ignored. This is typical of modern travel shows and tourist video blogs. Thus, the model of travel media text that appeared a hundred years ago continues to function in modern Russian mass media, despite changes in media consumption.

Keywords: travel media text, organizational function, tourism, travelogue, concept of “travel”
DOI: 10.30547/vestnik.journ.1.2019.135150


Akopov A. I. (1987) K voprosu o zhurnale kak tipe izdaniya [Towards the Journal as a Type of Publication]. In E. A. Kornilov (ed.) Tipologiya zhurnalistiki. Voprosy metodologii i istorii [Typology of Journalism. Issues of Methodology and History]. Rostov-on-Don: Rostov St. Univ. Publ. Pp. 61–77. (In Russian)

Cocker M. (1993). Loneliness and Time: The Story of British Travel Writing. New York: Pantheon Books.

Dijk T. A. (2015) Kontekst i poznanie. Freimy znaniy i ponimanie rechevykh aktov [Context and Cognition. Knowledge Frames and Understanding Speech Acts]. In V. I. Gerasimov (ed.) Yazyk. Poznanie. Kommunkatsiya [Language. Cognition. Communication.]. Moscow: LENAND Publ. Pp. 12–40. (In Russian)

Dokuchaev D. S. (2015) Pochtovaya otkrytka kontsa XIX – nachala XX veka kak forma traveloga (na materialakh kollektsii lichnoy perepiski fabrikanta i metsеnata D.G. Burulina) [A Postcard of the Late 19th – Early 20th Century as a Form of Travelogue (a case study of the collection of personal correspondence of the manufacturer and philanthropist D.G. Burulin)]. In T. I. Pecherskaya (ed.) Russkiy travelog XVIII-XX vekov: koll. monogr. [Russian Travelogue of the 18th-20th Centuries: collective monograph]. Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk. Gos. Pedagog. Univ. Publ. Pp. 105–112. (In Russian)

Dryga S. G. (2010) Kontsept “put`” v russkoy yazykovoy kartine mira: avtoref. dis. … kand. filol. nauk. [The Concept of “Way” in the Russian Linguistic Picture of the World: extended abstract of PhD. philol. sci. diss.] Stavropol. (In Russian)

Dubina N. (2000) Ornament v dekorativnom oformlenii knigi [Ornament in the Decorative Design of Books]. KompyuArt 8: 78–83. (In Russian)

Kozhanova V. Yu. (2012) Retseptsia mediateksta: k postanovke problemy [Reception of Media Text: Towards Problem Statement]. In L. R. Duskaeva, N. S. Tsvetova (eds.) Mediatekst kak poliitentsional`naya sistema [Media Text as a Poly-Intentional System]. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg St. Univ. Publ. Pp. 121–123. (In Russian)

Krivtsov N. V. (2017) Trevel-zhurnalistika: spetsifika napravleniya i ego problemy [Travel Journalism: Specifics of the Direction and Its Problems]. Voprosy teorii i praktiki zhurnalistiki 6 (3): 347–365. (In Russian). DOI: 10.17150/2308-6203.2017.6(3).347-365.

Lotman Yu. M. (1992–1993) K postroeniyu teorii vzaimodeystviya kul`tur (semioticheskiy aspekt) [To the Construction of the Theory of Interactions of Cultures (the Semiotic Aspect)]. In Izbrannye stat’i [Selected articles]. Tallinn: Aleksandra Publ. Pp. 110–121. (In Russian)

Makhonina S. Ya. (2002) Istoriya russkoy zhurnalistiki nachala XX veka [History of Russian Journalism of the Early 20th Century]. Moscow: Flinta; Nauka Publ. (In Russian)

Maslova N. M. (1980) Putevoy ocherk: problema zhanra [Travel Story: the Problem of the Genre]. Moscow: Znanie Publ. (In Russian)

Muratova N. A. (2015) Po motivam puteshestviya: p’esa Vladimira Mirzoeva “Umay” [Based on a Journey: Vladimir Mirzoyev`s Play “Umai”]. In T. I. Pecherskaya (ed.) Russkiy travelog XVIII-XX vekov: koll. monogr. [Russian travelogue of the 18th-20th centuries: collective monograph]. Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk. Gos. Pedagog. Univ. Publ. Pp. 460–469. (In Russian)

Nechaev N. N., Reznitskaya G. I. (2016) Rechevoe deystvie i kommunikativnye normy: osvoenie mezhkul’turnoy kommunikatsii s pozitsiy deyatel’nostnogo podkhoda [Speech Action and Communicative Norms: Mastering Intercultural Communication from the Perspective of the Activity Approach]. Yazyk I kul’tura 2 (34): 133–156. (In Russian). DOI: 10.17223/19996195/34/11

Nikonova Zh. V. (2006) Teoriya freymov v lingvisticheskikh issledovaniyakh [Theory of Frames in Linguistic Studies]. St. Petersburg: Faculty of Philology St. Petersburg St. Univ. Publ. (In Russian)

Novoselov M. M. (2000) Atribut [Attribute]. In Novaya filosofskaya entsiklopediya. (In Russian). Available at: (aссessed: 05.09.2018). 

Red’kina T. Yu. (2011) Trevel-tekst: prosveschenie, ubezhdenie ili razvlechenie? [Travel Text: Enlightenment, Persuasion or Entertainment?]. In S. G. Korkonosenko (ed.) Sredstva massovoy informatsii v sovremennom mire: Materialy 50-y mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Mass Media in the Modern World: Proceedings of the 50th International Scientific Conference]. St. Petersburg: Faculty of Philology St. Petersburg St. Univ. Publ. Pp. 56–58. (In Russian)

Smeyukha V. V. (2011) Tipologiya i modeli sovremennykh zhenskikh zhurnalov: monografiya [Typology and Models of Modern Women’s Magazines: monograph]. Rostov-on-Don: Southern Federal University Publ. (In Russian)

Zasurskiy Ya. N. (ed.) (1995) Tipologiya periodicheskoy pechati. Problemy i tendentsii razvitiya tipologicheskoy struktury sovremennoy periodiki [Typology of the Periodical Press. Problems and Trends in the Development of the Typological Structure of Modern Periodicals]. Moscow: Lomonosov Moscow St. Univ. Publ. (In Russian)

Zhirkov G. V. (2011) Zolotoy vek zhurnalistiki Rossii. Istoriya russkoy zhurnalistiki 1900–1914 godov [The Golden Age of Journalism in Russia. History of Russian Journalism in 1900–1914]. St. Petersburg: Laboratoriya operativnoy pechati fakul’teta zhurnalistiki St. Petersburg St. Univ. Publ. (In Russian)